An Introduction To Pain Pill Addiction
Pain pill addiction is a major problem in the United States. Most pain pills are opioids. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 70% of the drug overdose deaths in the U.S. in 2019 were from an opioid. Over the past 20 years, pain pill addiction and overdose deaths seem to increase each year.
As restrictions tightened access to prescription opioids, some people turned to heroin, another opioid, to manage their pain. When synthetic opioids became more available, such as illicitly produced compounds like fentanyl, sometimes people who struggle with pain pill addiction turn to these options because they are more accessible.
Despite being a major public health problem in the U.S. that affects a significant number of people, there are many misconceptions about pain pill addiction. In this article, learn more about pain pill addiction and its impacts on those that “chase the dragon.”
Types of Pain Pills
Opioid pain pills, sometimes called narcotics, come in a variety of options that doctors may prescribe for severe chronic pain or for short-term use after a surgery or injury. Popular opioid-based pain medications include:
- Methadose and Dolophine (methadone)
- Kadian and MS Contin (morphine)
- Olynvik (oliceridine)
- Hysingla and Zohydro ER (hydrocodone)
- Fentora and Abstral (fentanyl)
- Dilaudid and Exalgo (hydromorphone)
- Demerol (meperidine)
- OxyContin and Percocet (oxycodone)
How Pain Pill Addiction Occurs
Prescription opioids are strong pain relievers that can offer a tremendous amount of relief in cases of severe pain. The problem arises with tolerance, when you may need to take higher doses of the pain medication more frequently to have the same pain relief. The longer you take opioid medication, the more likely you will experience dependence and will face adverse physical reactions if you stop taking the medication. This is called withdrawal.
People taking legally prescribed opioids are at risk of addiction because of how highly addictive these medications are. These narcotics cause people to feel pleasure when taken, as opposed to pain, by stimulating parts of the brain that release the neurotransmitter dopamine. This process can act as a reward system that encourages you to continue to take the medication. This can make it even more difficult to stop.
This unfortunate cycle can lead someone without a history of substance use or criminal behavior to take illegal actions to get more opioids to manage their pain. In some cases, this causes them to seek other strong opioids like heroin.
Signs of Pain Pill Addiction
The signs of pill addiction are sometimes not obvious to friends and family members. In some cases, these signs resemble other acute medical conditions that might trouble a loved one. However, as the dependence on these medications and tolerance, more noticeable signs might be obvious.
Some symptoms of pain pill addiction include:
- Changes in sleep
- Weight loss
- Poor coordination
- Poor hygiene habits
- Slow breathing
- Mood swings
- Poor executive decision making
- Additional emergency room or doctor visits
- Doctor shopping
- Increased pain levels
- Arrests for theft, possession, or intent to sell
Any patient prescribed opioid pain pills is at risk of becoming addicted. Some factors may increase the likelihood of addiction. According to the peer-reviewed research publication Anesthesia & Analgesia, patient risk factors include:
- History of substance use
- Family history of substance use disorder
- Easy access to opioid prescriptions
- Not knowing about opioids and risks
- Untreated or undiagnosed psychiatric disorders
- Social environments that encourage misuse
- Young age
Long-Term Effects of Pain Pill Addiction
Unfortunately, pain pill addiction can cause long-term effects that are adverse, such as low blood pressure. With opioids, in particular, tolerance, dependence, and withdrawal are serious, long-term consequences that should never be minimized.
Additionally, overdose and death are concerns with the ongoing use of opioids, even after seeking professional treatment or detox. If you go back to taking the same dose as you did before stopping the medication, your body may not be able to handle the drugs in the same way. This puts you at an increased risk of overdose because you take more than your normal dose and it ends up being too much.
Pill pain addiction can also cause non-medical consequences that can cause even more challenges for everyday living. This includes:
- Use of other recreational substances
- Criminal activity
- Car accidents from being under the influence
- Difficulty keeping or getting employment
- Relationship and family challenges
- Failing out of school
- Financial losses
Pain pill addiction can often be a precursor to substance use disorder. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, 86% of the people that end up struggling with heroin reported a prior history of taking pain relievers nonmedically. They often access medications through prescriptions or from friends and family. Well-intentioned loved ones can accidentally start a person toward this cycle.
Prescription pill addiction is very common. The American Society of Anesthesiologists reports that nearly 2 million people abused or depended on opioid-based pain relievers in 2014. Most Americans know someone that faces pain pill addiction, whether or not they realize it. If you struggle with pain pill addiction or have a family member that shows the signs, you are not alone.
Pain pill addiction can have a serious impact on your life and the people around you. It can be difficult to get the pain relief that you need from the original condition that led to your doctor prescribing opioid medication and to stop taking the pain pills on your own. We are here to help using evidence-based methods. Contact Midwood Addiction Treatment to speak with a representative to learn how we can help you along your journey to recovery. We are here to help you through every step of the way.